What is Floor Ceramic? Types, Dimensions, and Applications
What is Floor Ceramic? Types, Dimensions, and Applications

What is Floor Ceramic? Types, Dimensions, and Applications

Flooring is one of the primary and essential elements in the interior design of residential and commercial places. Choosing the right design and color for the flooring adds a unique beauty to the utilized space. In addition to design and color, the quality and type of material used as flooring is of utmost importance. Floor coverings come in various materials, such as stone, parquet, laminate, and ceramic. Among the various options, porcelain floor ceramic stands out as one of the most favored floor coverings. It is versatile, suitable for all home spaces like living rooms, bathrooms, and kitchens, and extends to outdoor environments such as terraces, roof gardens, and heavily trafficked areas like parking lots. Compared to other flooring materials, porcelain ceramic offers a longer lifespan and superior hygiene, given its ease of cleaning. In this article, we will explore floor ceramics and the reasons for choosing them. What is Floor Ceramic? Floor ceramics, commonly called ceramics, are a type of tile used for flooring. The term "tile" encompasses various ceramic products utilized as coverings (including floor coverings, external walls, and internal walls). Floor tiles and wall tiles might seem similar at first glance; however, these two types of ceramics have significant differences, impacting their respective prices. Wall tiles typically have a porous body and can have a water absorption rate of up to 13%. In contrast, floor tiles have a water absorption rate between 0.5% to 6%. Moreover, wall tiles tend to be thinner and are available in a broader range of colors and designs. Floor tiles, on the other hand, are generally thicker than wall tiles and are not suitable for wall installation. Another difference lies in their sizes. Wall tiles, in comparison to floor tiles, are relatively smaller. Even though some ceramics are used as floor coverings and may share similar compositions, they have distinctions from regular tiles. In the following, we will touch upon some of the most important of these distinctions: Reception floor ceramic Comparing Floor Ceramic and Floor Tile:
Size Floor ceramics are typically made in larger dimensions, often exceeding 20 by 20 centimeters.
Thickness Due to their use in high-traffic areas and to bear heavy weights, floor ceramics are constructed with greater thickness.
Friction Coefficient Floor ceramics have a higher friction coefficient compared to regular tiles, ensuring increased stability against the risk of slipping in both dry and wet environments and in places with high foot traffic.
Application Floor ceramics are used in various environments, including bathrooms, kitchens, residential floors, and commercial spaces.
  Components of the Floor Ceramic Body The body of the ceramic floor, like other traditional ceramic bodies, is comprised of the following three components:
  1. Mineral Plastic Materials: These are substances that create plasticity for us. Kaolin is the most common plastic material.
  2. Fillers: In tri-component ceramic bodies, fillers act as non-plastic materials added to the ceramic. Their primary roles include preventing alterations in the ceramic's shape during baking in the kiln and managing its contraction and expansion. Additionally, they influence the ceramic's porosity, color, and glaze adhesion to the body.
  3. Fluxing Agents: These are elements extensively used in ceramic and tile production because of their ability to lower the melting point of the ceramic body or its glaze. As these agents are heated, they melt, and upon cooling, they transition to a glassy state.
  Read More: "An Overview of Ceramic Types in Terms of Usage, Materials, and Fabrication." Initially, the raw materials are milled and stored in large reservoirs as slurry to manufacture floor ceramics. The slurry is transferred to spray dryers to produce the required granules, where it then takes on a granulated form. Subsequently, these granules undergo pressing. After the application of glaze, the ceramics enter the baking phase. Under a specific thermal regime, the ceramics are baked at high temperatures and, if necessary, are polished. Now that we are familiar with floor ceramics, it is beneficial to understand the advantages of floor ceramics compared to other floor coverings. First and foremost, ceramics have a longer lifespan compared to other floor coverings. Porcelain ceramics, compared to parquet and other floorings, have superior mechanical resistance. They are even used in high-traffic areas such as shopping centers. Dirt and stains are easily cleaned off ceramics, making their maintenance straightforward. Ceramics are available in various colors and designs in the market. There are ceramics with wood and parquet designs and even stone patterns, which are very suitable for living room floors. Ceramics are available in both glazed and unglazed types, with the glazed variety performing better against scratches and scuffs. Floor ceramics come in various types, including conventional ceramics, porcelain ceramics with polished, semi-polished, and matte glazes. These ceramics are classified based on different criteria, which we will refer to later in the article.  
  • Floor Ceramics Based on Coating
  Floor ceramics are categorized based on their surface coating into glazed and unglazed types. Most of the floor ceramics available in the market are glazed. Glazed ceramics can have either a glossy or matte surface, and being glazed does not necessarily mean being shiny. The process of applying the glaze is usually carried out during the manufacturing process. If the glaze coating is applied before they are placed in the oven and then the baking process is executed, it is referred to as glazed ceramic. On the other hand, if no coating is applied before baking, it is called unglazed ceramic.
  • Ceramic Floor Tiles Based on Material
Floor ceramic tiles can be broadly categorized into two main types based on their material: conventional ceramics and porcelain ceramics. Conventional ceramic tiles possess a lower density due to their unique composition and fabrication method. Consequently, they tend to absorb more moisture and exhibit reduced impact resistance. The second category is porcelain ceramic tiles. The most significant and crucial feature of porcelain ceramics is their very low porosity, with a water absorption rate of less than 0.5%. This low porosity endows them with unique characteristics and properties. The primary difference between porcelain and conventional ceramics lies in the composition of the raw materials. In essence, the body of porcelain ceramics contains a higher amount of flux, whereas the flux content in conventional ceramics is lesser. Moreover, white clay ceramics absorb more water, leading to a reduced price. Another distinction between the two products pertains to the baking temperature. Porcelain ceramics are baked at temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1400 degrees Celsius, while conventional ceramics are baked at a lower temperature. Granite floor ceramic is a type of porcelain tile designed with a granite stone pattern. It typically comes in three main designs: salt and pepper, veined, and rustic. One of the primary distinctions between granite ceramics and conventional ceramics is the absence of iron oxide in their composition.
  • Floor Ceramics Based on Appearance:
Floor ceramics, based on appearance, can be divided into two types: matte and glossy. The glossiness of a ceramic tile depends on the finish that has been applied to its surface. The difference between these two types of ceramics lies in their reflection of light. Glossy ceramics are slippery, so they are not suitable for some spaces, such as bathrooms. Matte ceramics reflect very little light. This low reflection ensures that the images of people and objects are not seen on the ceramic surface. This type of ceramic is highly applicable in places such as offices, cafes, and restaurants, where there is heavy foot traffic.  
  • Floor Ceramics Based on Hardness Level
Floor ceramics can be categorized based on their hardness levels:  
  • Ceramics with Hardness Level 1: These ceramics have low resistance to abrasion. They are suitable for areas with low foot traffic, like bathrooms. It's not recommended to use these types of ceramics for bedroom or living room floors.
  • Ceramics with Hardness Level 2: These exhibit greater wear resistance when contrasted with the initial type. They prove to be a good fit for indoor spaces with lower chances of experiencing abrasion.
  • Ceramics with Hardness Level 3: Considered ceramics resistant to abrasion, they can confidently be used in most residential and small commercial areas with less traffic. However, harder ceramics should be used for spaces exposed to heavy traffic.
  • Ceramics with Hardness Level 4: They possess significantly higher durability and resistance compared to other ceramics. They can be used confidently in almost any space as one of the suitable floor ceramics.
  • Ceramics with Hardness Level 5: They boast the highest possible resistance and have no limitations in their usage.
  • Floor Ceramics Based on Dimensions
Floor ceramics are available in various sizes and dimensions, and the chosen size significantly impacts both the installation expenses and the overall cost. To illustrate, the installation cost of a 100x100 cm ceramic tile (assuming comparable material) would surpass that of an 80x80 cm tile. Due to the heightened stress exposure in high-traffic zones, floor tiles demand enhanced durability and exceptional resistance against cracking. In addition, the grout lines between the ceramics are spots where contaminants accumulate. The smaller the tiles, the more these grout lines exist and the higher the chance of environmental contamination. Therefore, floor tiles are typically produced in larger dimensions. Beyond length and width, floor tiles also come in various thicknesses, starting from 3 millimeters and reaching up to two centimeters or even more. Here, we mention some of the most common dimensions of floor tiles:
  • Tiles of size 120×60 cm
  • Tiles of size 100×100 cm
  • Tiles of size 160×80 cm
  • Slabs or large-sized tiles like 120×280 cm and 320×160 cm
  A slab is a type of ceramic tile that is larger in size compared to the usual tiles. Slabs are made in flat or sheet-like forms. These slabs are commonly available in sizes of 100×100 cm, 120×120 cm, 240×120 cm, 280×120 cm, and the supersize of 320×160 cm in the market.     Home Floor Ceramics Floor ceramics offer a wide array of applications, and virtually for any surface, you can think of, a specific and suitable type of floor ceramic exists. However, selecting the appropriate type of ceramic for the home floor depends on various factors and considerations, such as personal taste, interior decoration style, and family needs. Generally, in choosing the suitable type of ceramic for your home floor, consider the following:   Important Points for Selecting Home Floor Ceramics  
Stain Resistance The ceramic for residential unit flooring should have sufficient resistance to staining.
Resistance to Household Cleaning Agents The ceramic should be resistant to household cleaning agents (acidic and alkaline).
Style and Design The ceramic should harmonize with the interior decoration style of the house, and its design and color should align with your preferences.
Price The price of the ceramic should be compatible with your budget.
Wear Resistance The ceramic used for home flooring should have wear resistance to accommodate the high traffic of people, furniture, and household items.
  The better you understand ceramics, the more successful you will be in choosing the best ceramic for your home. Porcelain tiles are among the types of ceramics that can be considered a suitable option for flooring.   Read more: "What is Porcelain Tile; Its Types and Uses."   Bathroom Floor Ceramic The bathroom floor ceramic should possess certain features that make it appropriate for the bathroom environment. Some of the attributes that should be present in a bathroom floor ceramic include:
  1. Low Water Absorption: Given the inherent humidity of bathrooms, it's crucial for floor ceramics to exhibit minimal water absorption.
  2. Anti-slip: The floor ceramics in the bathroom should possess a high friction coefficient, substantially reducing the risk of slippages.
  3. Anti-bacterial and Stain Resistant: Modern bathroom ceramics should inhibit bacterial growth and demonstrate resistance against stains, ensuring optimal user health and hygiene. The advent of nanotechnology has notably bolstered this aspect of ceramics.
  4. Ease of Cleaning & Resistance to Cleaning Agents: Bathroom floor ceramics should be easy to clean to maintain hygiene and health.
  5. Aesthetics and Durability: Bathroom floor ceramics should have a design and color that complements the interior decoration of the bathroom. They should also be durable, withstanding regular bathroom usage and preserving their innate quality. In light of these factors, porcelain tiles emerge as an excellent choice for bathroom flooring. Currently, the majority of bathroom tiles in circulation are porcelain, revered for their diverse designs and resilience. When opting for porcelain tiles, it's wise to consider size; larger tiles can illuminate a more expansive space. For those with spacious bathrooms, slab-sized tiles might be a fitting choice.
Ceramic Courtyard Flooring In the past, stone was the best option for covering the courtyard floor of a home. However, today, with the rise in stone prices and the lack of sufficient variety in stone design, its use as a courtyard covering has become limited. Utilizing ceramic for courtyard flooring is very wise. Ceramics not only results in significant cost savings for floor covering but also has a long lifespan. With beautiful designs and colors, it is an ideal choice for courtyard flooring. Unlike many other floor coverings, the color of ceramic does not change in the face of various factors such as sunlight, chemicals, etc. A top-grade ceramic has high durability and quality and can perform even better than stone. When selecting ceramic for courtyard flooring, there are certain factors to consider. The primary feature to keep in mind is the strength and durability of the ceramic. The ceramic we use must be resistant to weather changes. If the ceramic is not of high quality, it can crack and break within a few months. It's better to ensure parameters such as water resistance and non-glossiness are met so that the beauty of the ceramic is maintained throughout the year. When selecting the type of ceramic for your courtyard flooring, it is essential to consider the climate of your residence area. If you live in colder regions, it's advisable to use ceramics whose surface isn't smooth and slippery. In cold climates, given the chilly weather, there's a higher likelihood of snow and rain, making the ground slippery. If the ceramic has a slippery surface, it can lead to slips and accidents during snowfall, rainfall, and icy conditions. In warmer climates, considering the direct sunlight and high heat, it's preferable to use more durable ceramics. In any case, glossy and slippery ceramics shouldn't be used for courtyard flooring.   Read more: "What is Ceramic; Its Properties, Types, and Applications"   Parking Area Floor Ceramics:   The selection of parking area floor ceramics shares some similarities with choosing ceramics for courtyard flooring. When selecting ceramics for parking spaces, paying attention to their surface smoothness or texture is paramount. Opting for ceramics with lower slipperiness can be highly advantageous. It is recommended to acquire ceramics with resistance to wear for parking areas, as these spaces experience a significant amount of foot traffic. Additionally, the degree of wear directly correlates with the ceramics' lifespan. When selecting and purchasing ceramics for parking lot flooring, attention must be paid to their water absorption rate. Due to rainfall and snowfall, choosing a covering with the least water absorption is imperative. This ensures greater durability and longevity. For instance, porcelain floor tiles have one of the lowest water absorption rates. Utilizing ceramics offers numerous advantages, summarized as follows:
  • Variety in ceramic design and color.
  • Resistance to stains and chemicals.
  • Durability against impacts and shocks.
  • Resistance to scratches and wear from vehicle traffic and parking.
  • Ease of cleaning.
  • Quick and simple installation.
  • Cost savings and extended lifespan.
  Ceramic Flooring for Shops Ceramic floorings are among the most durable types of floor coverings for shops. In addition to their long lifespan, ceramics are easily cleaned. The use of various cleaning agents does not adversely affect the quality of the ceramic. One of the key considerations when choosing ceramic flooring for shops is its durability. Some shops are used for the sale of heavy items, and their floor covering may easily get damaged during transportation. For this reason, the resistance of tiles and ceramics against impacts is crucial. Moreover, shops experience high foot traffic and require frequent cleaning. Porcelain ceramic is the most durable type of flooring against wear and frequent cleaning using detergents. When selecting the best ceramic for a shop floor, its compatibility with the shop's environment should also be considered. The design and color of the ceramic should be chosen in line with the shop's function and ambiance. For instance, ceramics with a matte surface are preferable for flooring, as they prevent damage caused by slipping and wear. The design and color of the ceramic also significantly influence the lighting and light reflection in the shop space. For example, certain specialty shops like jewelry stores should use glossy ceramics that double the ambient light.     Ceramic Floor Pricing and Purchase Method As we have observed, there are various types of floor ceramics. The price per square meter of ceramic flooring is determined based on the quality of materials used, color, design, and surface glaze. For instance, high-quality ceramics resistant to heavy traffic and frequent usage tend to be priced higher than other ceramics. External factors such as currency exchange rates and market fluctuations also influence the price. Consulting with experienced experts greatly assists in choosing the appropriate ceramic.   Summary In this article, we became acquainted with floor ceramics and their various types. Floor ceramics have numerous applications and are used as flooring for courtyards, parking areas, rooms, etc. When choosing any of these floor ceramics, we must consider certain criteria to make the right choice. Remember that the ceramic manufacturer's brand can also hold significant importance. At the Pishgaman Memari Arya Company, with a diverse range of top-grade porcelain ceramics in various designs and sizes, we are ready to serve our valued customers. Additionally, our engineering sales team acts as technical consultants, considering your needs, execution conditions, project use, and the technical specifications of the manufactured product to provide the right selection advice to our clients.